However, given the Sochi agreement, which ends Turkish military operations in Syria, the massive return of refugees is questionable. After months of tension and threats, the first agreement was reached in mid-August 2019 to create the northern buffer zone of Syria between the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the United States, on the one hand, and Turkey on the other. The agreement aimed to limit the Turkish offensive on northern Syria through a process of gradual withdrawal of the SDF, withdrawal of fortifications and joint US-Turkish patrols, while the area could remain under civilian control of the autonomous administration of northern and eastern Syria and military control of the military councils of the Syrian Democratic Forces , in accordance with the first buffer zone agreement. Despite initial progress in implementation, Turkey has become increasingly dissatisfied and has made other demands that have been rejected by the SDF.   On October 1, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has come under heavy criticism of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan as a “thief” who “steals our country today,” an “excellent agreement” between Erdogan and Russian President Putin, who has endowed a Turkish-dominated “safe zone” along the Turkey-Syria border with a quality label that Russian and Turkish forces must patrol. The Sochi agreement, which was carefully constructed in ten points, requires that one of the big questions be how long Turkey will remain on Syrian territory, given Erdogan`s stated intention to transfer about 1.5 million refugees from their current camps inside Turkey. The “safe zone” can also become a “safe haven” for anti-Assad forces, who are currently acting as Erdogan`s facilitators in Operation Spring Peace and advancing their own agenda, in contradiction with some of Erdogan`s commitments under the Sochi agreement. In addition, the fate of thousands of IS fighters remains under Kurdish guard, including hundreds of Damascus claimed to have been sent to Iraq by US forces. Will Erdogan take over the new prison, as the White House recently claimed, or will he instead recruit it to his army, as he has already done, according to various reports? Russian military police and Syrian border guards, controlled by President Bashar al-Assad, will facilitate the expulsion of Kurdish fighters and weapons from Wednesday noon to the depths of 18 miles from their positions at the border, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevl-t Avolu and his Russian counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, said after their respective presidents announced the agreement to reporters.